|Current Distribution Rate 1, 2||10.33%|
|Quarterly Distribution Per Share2||$26.81250|
|52 Week High/Low NAV||$1,130.75/$1,035.68|
|Total Managed Assets||$93,181,171|
|Common Shares Outstanding||67,247|
|Expense Ratio (Common Shares)4||2.99%|
|Portfolio Turnover Rate||12%|
|1940 Act Asset Coverage Ratio||398.58%|
|Since Inception (8/13/15)||11.15%|
Performance data quoted represents past performance, which is no guarantee of future results, and current performance may be lower or higher than the figures shown. Since Inception returns assume a purchase of common shares at each Fund’s initial offering price for market price returns or the Fund’s initial net asset value (NAV) for NAV returns. Returns for periods of less than one year are not annualized. All distributions are assumed to be reinvested either in accordance with the dividend reinvestment plan (DRIP) for market price returns or NAV for NAV returns. Until the DRIP price is available from the Plan Agent, the market price returns reflect the reinvestment at the closing market price on the last business day of the month. Once the DRIP is available around mid-month, the market price returns are updated to reflect reinvestment at the DRIP price. All returns include the deduction of management fees, operating expenses and all other fund expenses, and do not reflect the deduction of brokerage commissions or taxes that investors may pay on distributions or the sale of shares. Please refer to the most recent annual or semi-annual report for additional information.
Distributions are not guaranteed and are subject to change.
1 Latest declared distribution per share annualized and divided by the current NAV.
2 Distributions may be paid from sources of income other than ordinary income, such as short term capital gains, long term capital gains or return of capital. If a distribution consists of something other than ordinary income, a 19(a) notice detailing the anticipated source(s) of the distribution will be made available. The 19(a) notice will be posted to the Fund’s website and to the Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation so that brokers can distribute such notices to Shareholders of the Fund. Section 19(a) notices are provided for informational purposes only and not for tax reporting purposes. The final determination of the source and tax characteristics of all distributions in a particular year will be made after the end of the year. This information is not legal or tax advice. Consult a professional regarding your specific legal or tax matters.
3 Represents the amount of financial leverage the Fund currently employs as a percentage of total Fund assets.
4 Expense ratios are annualized and reflect the Fund’s operating expense, including interest expense, or in the case of a fund with a fee waiver, net operating expense, as of the most recent annual or semi-annual report. The expense ratio, based on common assets, excluding interest expense was 2.46%.
The Fund’s primary investment objective is to provide high income. As a secondary investment objective, the Fund will seek capital appreciation. There can be no assurance the Fund will achieve its investment objectives.
Under normal market conditions, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its Managed Assets in (i) securities of energy companies and (ii) income producing securities of other issuers. Energy companies include companies that have at least 50% of their assets, income, sales or profits committed to, or derived from, (i) production, exploration, development, mining, extraction, transportation (including marine transportation), refining, processing, storage, distribution, management, marketing and/or trading of oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, refined petroleum products, coal, biofuels, or other natural resources used to produce energy, or ethanol, (ii) generation, transmission, distribution, marketing, sale and/or trading of all forms of electrical power (including through clean and renewable resources, such as solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy or hydropower) or gas, (iii) manufacturing, marketing, management, sale and/or trading of equipment, products or other supplies predominantly used by entities engaged in such businesses and (iv) provision of services to entities engaged in such businesses. Under normal market conditions, the Fund will invest at least 70% of its Managed Assets in securities of energy companies. The Fund intends to focus its energy company investments in debt securities, including bonds, debentures, notes, loans and loan participations, mezzanine and preferred securities, convertible securities and structured products.
The Fund may invest in debt securities of any credit quality, and may invest without limitation in securities of below investment grade quality (also known as “high yield securities” or “junk bonds”).5
The Adviser believes that rigorous credit research, deep industry expertise and valuation conviction are critical to identifying superior investment opportunities and managing downside risk. The Adviser believes that its broad relationships with management teams, financial sponsors and capital markets professionals creates opportunities for unique investment opportunities and its deep understanding of underfollowed companies and complex capital structures creates opportunities to drive better investment outcomes. The Adviser’s investment process is structured around its core beliefs:
The Adviser operates on the thesis that a disciplined, research-intensive process can uncover compelling investment opportunities. By analyzing a broad set of opportunities up and down the capital structure, as well as overlaying macroeconomic research, the Adviser gains better insight into the dynamics of the business, enterprise value and where it may seek to deliver the best packages of risk and return. The Adviser’s rigorous research process is described below:
The Adviser divides the energy sector into five distinct subsectors, which include: Upstream (exploration and production), Energy Services (provide equipment and services to energy companies), Midstream (pipeline companies), Downstream (refiners), and Power and Chemical (produce and distribute to end users). The Adviser believes that each of these subsectors exhibits different levels of energy price sensitivity. In addition to considering the unique dynamics of each subsector, it is also important to understand each company’s cash liquidity, commodity exposures, basin exposures and capital spending requirements when evaluating their ability to service their debt. The Adviser applies its macroeconomic and credit expertise to the unique characteristics of the energy sector, subsectors and individual companies. In doing so, the investment team seeks to identify those high yielding debt instruments that it believes represent compelling investment opportunities.
Mr. Hauser joined Guggenheim in 2002 and is a member of Guggenheim’s Corporate Credit Group. He is also a member of the Investment Committee overseeing Guggenheim’s corporate credit investing activities. Prior to his role as a portfolio manager, Mr. Hauser led a team covering a variety of sectors including technology, media and telecom, education, metals and mining, homebuilding, healthcare, and energy and power. He has substantial experience in the high yield and leverage loan class. During his career at the firm, Mr. Hauser has been an analyst covering a variety of sectors, including the energy, power, transportation and chemical sectors. Mr. Hauser received his B.S. in Finance from St. Johns University.
Mr. Brown joined Guggenheim in 2010 and is a part of the Portfolio Management team for Guggenheim’s Active Fixed Income and Total Return mandates. Mr. Brown is involved in all facets of portfolio management including working with the senior Portfolio Managers and CIOs to develop and apply the macro and sector level views at the individual portfolio level. Additionally he works closely with the sector teams and portfolio construction to implement trades and optimize portfolios. Prior to joining the portfolio management team in 2012 Mr. Brown worked in the non-mortgage asset backed securities group. His responsibilities on that team included trading, sourcing and evaluating investment opportunities and monitoring credits. Prior to joining Guggenheim Mr. Brown held roles within treasury services and structured products at ABN AMRO and Bank of America in Chicago and London. Mr. Brown earned a BS in Finance from Indiana University’s Kelley School of Business. He has earned the right to use the Chartered Financial Analyst® designation and is a member of the CFA Institute.
Mr. Bloch joined Guggenheim in 2012 and is a portfolio manager for Guggenheim’s Active Fixed Income and Total Return Mandates. Mr. Bloch works with the CIOs and other portfolio managers to develop portfolio strategy in line with the firm’s views. He oversees strategy implementation, working with research analysts and traders to generate trade ideas, hedge portfolios, and manage day-to-day risk. Prior to joining Guggenheim, he worked in Leveraged Finance at Bank of America Merrill Lynch in New York where he structured high-yield bonds and leveraged loans for leveraged buyouts, restructurings, and corporate refinancings across multiple industries. Mr. Bloch graduated with a Bachelor’s degree from the University of Pennsylvania.
Mr. de Wet joined Guggenheim Partners in March 2013 from PIMCO where he spent 6 years and was part of the team that established PIMCO’s New York Portfolio Management presence. He has more than 10 years of Investment Management experience across Multi-Sector Credit, Emerging Markets and Equities. Previously Mr. de Wet worked in Investment Banking at Lehman Brothers and Barclays Capital in Mergers and Acquisitions and Restructuring Advisory, and as an Assistant Vice President at the TCW Group. Mr. de Wet received a BBA in Finance and International Business from George Washington University and an MBA from Columbia Business School.
Investors should consider the following risk factors and special considerations associated with investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is subject to investment risk, including the possible loss of the entire principal amount that you invest.
The Fund is a newly-organized, non-diversified, closed-end management investment company with no operating history. As a result, prospective investors have no track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
An investment in the Common Shares of the Fund should not be considered a complete investment program. The Fund is intended for long-term investors. The Fund is not meant to provide a vehicle for those who wish to play short-term swings in the market. Each Common Shareholder should take into account the Fund’s investment objectives as well as the Common Shareholder’s other investments when considering an investment in the Fund. Before making an investment decision, a prospective investor should consider (i) the suitability of this investment with respect to his or her investment objectives and personal situation and (ii) factors such as his or her personal net worth, income, age, risk tolerance and liquidity needs.
An investment in the Common Shares is subject to investment risk, including the possible loss of the entire principal amount that you invest. An investment in the Common Shares represents an indirect investment in the securities owned by the Fund. The value of the securities owned by the Fund may fluctuate, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, which will affect the net asset value and may affect the market price of the Common Shares. The value of securities owned by the Fund may decline due to general market conditions that are not specifically related to a particular issuer, such as real or perceived economic conditions, changes in interest or currency rates or changes in investor sentiment or market outlook generally. At any point in time, your Common Shares may be worth less than your original investment, including the reinvestment of Fund dividends and distributions.
The Fund is designed for long-term investors who are prepared to hold the Common Shares of the Fund until the end of the Fund’s term and not as a trading vehicle. An investment in the Common Shares, unlike an investment in a traditional listed closed-end fund, should be considered illiquid. The Common Shares are appropriate only for investors who are seeking an investment in less liquid portfolio investments within an illiquid fund. An investment in Common Shares is not suitable for investors who need access to the money they invest. Unlike shares of open-end funds (commonly known as mutual funds), which generally are redeemable on a daily basis, the Common Shares will not be redeemable at an investor’s option. Unlike traditional listed closed-end funds, the Fund does not intend to list the Common Shares for trading on any securities exchange, and the Fund does not expect any secondary market to develop for the Common Shares in the foreseeable future. The net asset value of the Common Shares may be volatile and the Fund’s use of leverage will increase this volatility. As the Common Shares are not traded, investors may not be able to dispose of their investment in the Fund no matter how poorly the Fund performs.
The Fund intends to complete a Shareholder Liquidity Event on or before the Liquidity Event Date, July 28, 2023. If the Board of Trustees determines that under then current market conditions it is in the best interests of the Fund to do so, the Fund may extend the Liquidity Event Date for one year, to July 28, 2024, without a shareholder vote. The Fund’s investment objectives and policies are not designed to seek to return to investors that purchase Common Shares in this offering their initial investment on the Liquidity Event Date or any other date.
Beginning 18 months after the completion of the offering, the Fund intends, but is not obligated, to conduct quarterly tender offers for up to 2.5% of the Common Shares then outstanding in the sole discretion of the Board of Trustees. In a tender offer, the Fund will offer to repurchase Common Shares at the Fund’s net asset value per Common Share or a percentage of the Fund’s net asset value per Common Share on the last day of the offer. In any given quarter, the Fund may choose not to conduct a tender offer or may choose to conduct a tender offer for less than 2.5% of the Common Shares then outstanding. Accordingly, there may be periods during which no tender offer is made, and it is possible that no tender offers will be conducted during the term of the Fund. If a tender offer is not made, Common Shareholders may not be able to sell their Common Shares as it is unlikely that a secondary market for the Common Shares will develop or, if a secondary market does develop, Common Shareholders may be able to sell their Common Shares only at substantial discounts from net asset value. If the Fund does conduct tender offers, it may be required to sell its more liquid, higher quality portfolio securities to purchase Common Shares that are tendered, which may increase risks for remaining Common Shareholders and increase fund expenses as a percentage of net assets. In addition, while the Fund is permitted to borrow money to finance the repurchase of Common Shares pursuant to tender offers, there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to obtain such financing if it attempts to do so. Moreover, if the Fund’s portfolio does not provide adequate liquidity to fund tender offers, the Fund may extend the last day of any tender offer or choose to pay tendering Common Shareholders with a promissory note, which will cause the Common Shareholders to be paid at a later date than if the tender offer were not extended or if the promissory note were not issued.
This offering is being made on a best efforts basis. There is no minimum number of Common Shares (by all Common Shareholders in aggregate) required to be sold. There is no assurance that the Fund will raise sufficient proceeds in this offering to allow the Fund to purchase a portfolio of investments allocated in accordance with the Adviser’s investment strategy. The Distributor is an affiliate of the Fund. As a result, its due diligence review and investigation of the Fund and this prospectus cannot be considered to be an independent review.
The Fund is subject to management risk because it has an actively managed portfolio. The Adviser will apply investment techniques and risk analysis in making investment decisions for the Fund, but there can be no guarantee that these will produce the desired results.
The income investors receive from the Fund is based in part on the interest it earns from its investments, which can vary widely over the short- and long-term. If prevailing market interest rates drop, investors’ income from the Fund could drop as well. The Fund’s income could also be affected adversely when prevailing short-term interest rates increase and the Fund is utilizing financial leverage.
Because the Fund’s investments are focused in companies operating in the energy sector of the economy, the Fund will be more susceptible to risks associated with the energy sector and to adverse economic, environmental or regulatory developments affecting the energy sector. A downturn in the energy sector will have a larger impact on the Fund than on an investment company that does not concentrate in such sector.
Energy companies may be affected by fluctuations in the prices of energy commodities. Fluctuations in energy commodity prices may be influenced by changes in general economic conditions or political circumstances (especially of key energy producing and consuming countries); market conditions and uncertainty; changes in supply of and consumer demand for electricity, gas or other commodities; weather patterns; domestic production levels; volume of imports; the price and availability of alternative electric generation options, which may be effected by government subsidies, tax credits or other support; energy conservation; competitive position of electricity, ethanol/biodiesel, oil, gas or coal as a source of energy as compared with other energy sources; domestic and foreign governmental regulation; international politics; policies of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”); taxation; tariffs; the availability and costs of local, intrastate and interstate transportation methods, among others; the industry-wide and/ or local refining, transportation or processing capacity; new technologies; catastrophic events or terrorist acts; speculation; and other factors that are beyond the control of the Fund and the Adviser.
Companies operating in the energy sector may be impacted by the levels of supply and demand for energy commodities. The volume of production of energy commodities and the volume of energy commodities available for transportation, storage, processing or distribution could be affected by a variety of factors.
Recently, oil prices declined significantly and experienced significant volatility. This may adversely impact companies operating in the energy sector. If the prices for commodities experience a substantial downturn or remain relatively weak for the medium to long term, the ability of businesses whose financial performance depends in part on commodity prices to grow or maintain revenues in future years may be adversely affected, and at certain long term price levels for a given commodity, extractive operations with respect to that commodity may not be economically viable. There can be no assurance as to the duration of any perceived market dislocation.
The energy sector is highly regulated by U.S. and non-U.S. federal, state and local laws and regulations. Energy companies are subject to significant regulation of nearly every aspect of their operations. Stricter laws or regulations or stricter enforcement policies with respect to existing regulations would likely increase the costs of regulatory compliance and could have an adverse effect on the financial performance of energy companies. Such regulation can change rapidly or over time in both scope and intensity.
There is an inherent risk that energy companies may incur environmental costs and liabilities due to the nature of their businesses and the substances they handle. Energy companies could be subject to substantial liabilities for environmental cleanup and restoration costs, claims made by neighboring landowners and other third parties for personal injury and property damage, and fines or penalties for related violations of environmental laws or regulations.
Certain energy companies may require the use of hydraulic fracturing to produce commercial quantities of oil and natural gas from reservoirs in which they operate. Changes in laws or government regulations regarding hydraulic fracturing could increase certain energy companies’ costs of doing business, limit the areas in which such companies can operate and reduce oil and natural gas production by such companies. Any such developments could adversely impact companies that provide fracturing services and materials.
Energy companies engaged in the exploration, development, management or production of energy commodities face the risk that commodity reserves are depleted over time. Such companies seek to increase their reserves through expansion of their current businesses, acquisitions, further development of their existing sources of energy commodities, exploration of new sources of energy commodities or by entering into long-term contracts for additional reserves; however, there are risks associated with each of these potential strategies.
Certain energy companies may depend on the ability of to make acquisitions. The ability of such companies to make future acquisitions is dependent on their ability to identify suitable targets, negotiate favorable purchase contracts, obtain acceptable financing and outbid competing potential acquirers. To the extent that such companies are unable to make future acquisitions, or such future acquisitions fail to have the desired impact, their growth will be limited.
Rising interest rates could increase the costs of capital thereby increasing operating costs and reducing the ability of energy companies to carry out acquisitions or expansions in a cost-effective manner.
Weather plays a role in the seasonality of some energy companies’ cash flows. No amount of preparation can protect an energy company from the unpredictability of the weather, extreme weather conditions or possible climate change.
Energy companies may be subject to technology risks, including the risk of mechanical breakdown, spare parts shortages, failure to perform according to design specifications and other unanticipated events which adversely affect operations. Some energy companies are focused on developing new technologies and are strongly influenced by technological changes. These companies may bear high research and development costs, which can limit their ability to maintain operations during periods of organizational growth or instability.
Energy companies may rely heavily on infrastructure assets for the storage and transportation of energy and power outputs. Infrastructure intensive energy companies may be susceptible to a variety of factors that may adversely affect their business and operations, including high interest costs in connection with capital construction programs; high leverage; costs associated with environmental and other regulations; surplus capacity costs; and reduced investment in public and private infrastructure projects.
Certain energy companies may enter into power purchase agreements (“PPAs”). There can be no assurance that any or all of the power purchasers will fulfill their obligations under their PPAs or that a power purchaser will not become bankrupt or that upon any such bankruptcy its obligations under its respective PPA will not be rejected by a bankruptcy trustee.
Certain energy companies may require large areas of land to install and operate their equipment and associated infrastructure. The rights to use the necessary land may be obtained through freehold title, easements, leases and other rights of use. Different jurisdictions adopt different systems of land title, and in some jurisdictions it may not be possible to ascertain definitively who has the legal right to enter into land tenure arrangements.
Independent contractors are typically used in operations in the energy industry to perform various operational tasks. In periods of high commodity prices, demand for such contractors may exceed supply resulting in increased costs or lack of availability of key contractors. Since an energy company may not have the same control over independent contractors as they may have over their own employees, there is a risk that such contractors will not operate in accordance with its own safety standards or other policies.
Certain losses of a catastrophic nature, such as wars, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, or other similar events, may be either uninsurable or, insurable at such high rates that to maintain such coverage would cause an adverse impact on the energy companies’ operations or profitability.
A variety of factors may adversely affect the business or operations of utilities, including: high interest costs in connection with capital construction and improvement programs; governmental regulation of rates charged to customers; costs associated with compliance with and changes in environmental and other regulations; effects of economic slowdowns and surplus capacity; increased competition from other providers of utilities services; inexperience with and potential losses resulting from a developing deregulatory environment; costs associated with reduced availability of certain types of fuel; the effects of energy conservation policies; effects of a national energy policy; technological innovations; potential impact of terrorist activities; the impact of natural or man-made disasters; regulation by various governmental authorities, including the imposition of special tariffs; and changes in tax laws, regulatory policies and accounting standards.
Companies owning or operating electric generation and transmission assets may be subject to regulatory requirements under the Federal Power Act, other federal utility statutes, state and local public utility laws.
An energy company could be materially and adversely affected as a result of statutory or regulatory changes or judicial or administrative interpretations of existing laws and regulations that impose more comprehensive or stringent requirements on such company. There can be no assurance that an energy company will be able (i) to obtain all required regulatory approvals that it does not yet have or that it may require in the future; (ii) to obtain any necessary modifications to existing regulatory approvals; or (iii) to maintain required regulatory approvals.
Energy and energy-related infrastructure projects may be subject to siting requirements. Siting of energy projects is also frequently subject to regulation by applicable state, county and local authorities. Proposals to site an energy project may be challenged by a number of parties, including special interest groups based on alleged security concerns, disturbances to natural habitats for wildlife and adverse aesthetic impacts.
It is possible that new U.S. or non-U.S. taxes on the energy industry could be implemented and/or U.S. or non-U.S. tax benefits could be eliminated or reduced, reducing the profitability of energy companies and their available cash flow. Certain federal income tax deductions currently available with respect to oil and natural gas exploration and development may be eliminated as a result of future legislation.
The Fund may invest globally and may invest in businesses that have operations in regions with varying degrees of political, legal and commercial stability. Political, civil and social pressures may result in administrative change, policy reform and/or changes in law or governmental regulations, which in turn can result in expropriation or nationalization of the investments of a company in which the Fund invests and/or adversely affect the value or liquidity of such company’s investments or such company’s underlying business.
The right of certain energy companies to extract mineral resources, generate, deliver or sell energy or related services and equipment may be granted by, or derive from approval by, governmental entities and are subject to special risks, including the risk that the relevant governmental entity will exercise sovereign rights and take actions contrary to the rights of company. There can be no assurance that the relevant governmental entity will not legislate, impose regulations or change applicable laws or act contrary to the law in a way that would materially and adversely affect the business of any energy company in which the Fund invests.
Energy companies may control significant strategic assets. Strategic assets are assets that have a national or regional profile, and may have monopolistic characteristics. Given the national or regional profile and/or their irreplaceable nature, strategic assets may constitute a higher risk target for terrorist acts or adverse political actions.
Energy companies may employ hedging techniques designed to reduce currency, commodity price, interest rate exposure or other investment risks or as a means of structuring an investment in a company in light of applicable legal, tax or regulatory considerations. If an energy company engages in any such hedging activities, it may be exposed to credit-related losses in the event of non-performance by counterparties to the physical or financial instruments. Additionally, if commodity prices, interest rates or exchange rates increase above or decrease below those levels specified in any future hedging agreements, such hedging arrangements may prevent an energy company from realizing the full benefit of such increases or decreases.
The energy industry is cyclical and from time to time may experience a shortage of drilling rigs, equipment, supplies, or qualified personnel, or due to significant demand, such services may not be available on commercially reasonable terms.
Energy companies are subject to many dangers inherent in the production, exploration, management, transportation, processing and distribution of natural gas, natural gas liquids, crude oil, refined petroleum and petroleum products and other hydrocarbons. These dangers include leaks, fires, explosions, damage to facilities and equipment resulting from natural disasters, inadvertent damage to facilities and equipment and terrorist acts. Any occurrence of such catastrophic events could bring about a limitation, suspension or discontinuation of the operations of energy companies.
The Fund may invest without limitation in securities of below investment grade quality (which are commonly referred to as “high-yield securities” or “junk bonds”). Loans in which the Fund intends to invest are generally expected to be of below investment-grade quality. Investment in securities of below investment grade quality involves substantial risk of loss. Securities of below investment grade quality are considered predominantly speculative with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal when due and therefore involve a greater risk of default or decline in market value due to adverse economic and issuer-specific developments. Issuers of below investment grade securities are not perceived to be as strong financially as those with higher credit ratings. These issuers are more vulnerable to financial setbacks and recession than more creditworthy issuers, which may impair their ability to make interest and principal payments. Securities of below investment grade quality display increased price sensitivity to changing interest rates and to a deteriorating economic environment. The market values for securities of below investment grade quality tend to be more volatile and such securities tend to be less liquid than investment grade debt securities. To the extent that a secondary market does exist for certain below investment grade securities, the market for them may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. Because of the substantial risks associated with investments in below investment grade securities, you could have an increased risk of losing money on your investment in Common Shares, both in the short-term and the long-term. To the extent that the Fund invests in securities that have not been rated by a rating agency, the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objectives will be more dependent on the Adviser’s credit analysis than would be the case when the Fund invests in rated securities.
The value of securities in which the Fund invests may decline for a number of reasons which directly relate to the issuer, such as management performance, financial leverage, reduced demand for the issuer’s goods and services, historical and projected earnings, and the value of its assets.
Credit risk is the risk that one or more debt obligations in the Fund’s portfolio will decline in price, or fail to pay interest or principal when due, because the issuer of the obligation experiences a decline in its financial status.
Interest rate risk is the risk that fixed-income securities will decline in value because of changes in market interest rates. When market interest rates rise, the market value of fixed income securities generally will fall. These risks may be greater in the current market environment because interest rates are near historically low levels.
The prices of longer-term securities fluctuate more than prices of shorter-term securities as interest rates change. The Fund’s use of financial leverage will tend to increase Common Share interest rate risk. The Fund may utilize certain strategies, including taking positions in futures or interest rate swaps, for the purpose of reducing the interest rate sensitivity of fixed income securities held by the Fund and decreasing the Fund’s exposure to interest rate risk. The Fund is not required to hedge its exposure to interest rate risk and may choose not to do so. In addition, there is no assurance that any attempts by the Fund to reduce interest rate risk will be successful or that any hedges that the Fund may establish will perfectly correlate with movements in interest rates.
Reinvestment risk is the risk that income from the Fund’s portfolio will decline if the Fund invests the proceeds from matured, traded or called securities at market interest rates that are below the portfolio’s current earnings rate. A decline in income could affect the Common Shares’ market price or the overall return of the Fund.
During periods of declining interest rates, borrowers may exercise their option to prepay principal earlier than scheduled, forcing the Fund to reinvest in lower yielding securities.
Because the secondary markets for certain investments may be limited, they may be difficult to value. Where market quotations are not readily available or deemed unreliable, the Fund will value such securities in accordance with fair value procedures adopted by the Board of Trustees. Valuation of illiquid securities may be more difficult, may require more research and may involve more uncertainty than for more liquid investments. In addition, elements of judgment may play a greater role in valuation in such cases than for investments with a more active secondary market because there is less reliable objective data available. A security that is fair valued by the Fund may be valued at a price higher or lower than the value determined by other funds using their own fair valuation procedures and such differences may be material. Prices obtained by the Fund upon the sale of such securities may not equal the value at which the Fund carried the investment on its books, which would adversely affect the net asset value of the Fund, and such differences could be material.
The market value of a corporate bond may be affected by factors directly related to the issuer, such as investors’ perceptions of the creditworthiness of the issuer, the issuer’s financial performance, perceptions of the issuer in the market place, performance of management of the issuer, the issuer’s capital structure and use of financial leverage and demand for the issuer’s goods and services. There is a risk that the issuers of corporate bonds may not be able to meet their obligations on interest or principal payments at the time called for by an instrument. Corporate bonds of below investment grade quality are often high risk and have speculative characteristics and may be particularly susceptible to adverse issuer-specific developments.
The Fund may invest in Senior Loans made to corporations and other nongovernmental entities and issuers (a “Borrower”). Senior Loans typically hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a business entity, are typically secured with specific collateral and typically have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the Borrower that is senior to that held by subordinated debt holders and stockholders of the Borrower. Senior Loans in which the Fund will invest are generally rated below investment grade or unrated but believed by the Adviser to be of below investment grade quality and are considered speculative because of the credit risk of their issuers. The risks associated with such Senior Loans are similar to the risks of other lower grade securities, although Senior Loans are typically senior and secured in contrast to subordinated and unsecured debt securities. Senior Loans’ higher standing has historically resulted in generally higher recoveries in the event of a corporate reorganization. Although the Senior Loans in which the Fund will invest generally will be secured by specific collateral, there can be no assurance that liquidation of such collateral would satisfy the Borrower’s obligation in the event of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal or that such collateral could be readily liquidated. In the event of the bankruptcy of a Borrower, the Fund could experience delays or limitations with respect to its ability to realize the benefits of the collateral securing a Senior Loan. In addition, because their interest payments are adjusted for changes in short-term interest rates, investments in Senior Loans generally have less interest rate risk than other lower grade securities, which may have fixed interest rates.
Second Lien Loans, Subordinated Secured Loans, and Unsecured Loans Risk generally are subject to similar risks as those associated with investment in Senior Loans and below investment grade securities. However, such loans may rank lower in right of payment than any outstanding loans or other debt instruments with higher priority of the Borrower and therefore are subject to additional risk that the cash flow of the Borrower and any property securing the loan may be insufficient to meet scheduled payments and repayment of principal in the event of default or bankruptcy after giving effect to the higher ranking secured obligations of the Borrower. Such Loans are expected to have greater price volatility than Loans with higher priority and may be less liquid.
The Fund may acquire Senior Loan assignments or participations. The purchaser of an assignment typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations of the assigning institution and becomes a lender under the credit agreement with respect to the debt obligation; however, the purchaser’s rights can be more restricted than those of the assigning institution. A participation typically results in a contractual relationship only with the institution participating out the interest, not with the Borrower. In purchasing participations, the Fund generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the Borrower with the terms of the loan agreement against the Borrower and the Fund may not directly benefit from the collateral supporting the debt obligation in which it has purchased the participation. As a result, the Fund will be exposed to the credit risk of both the Borrower and the institution selling the participation.
The Fund may invest in certain lower grade securities known as “Mezzanine Investments,” which are subordinated debt securities that are generally issued in private placements in connection with an equity security (e.g., with attached warrants) or may be convertible into equity securities. Mezzanine Investments are generally subject to similar risks associated with investment in Senior Loans, Second Lien Loans and other below investment grade securities. However, Mezzanine Investments may rank lower in right of payment than any outstanding Senior Loans, Second Lien Loans and other debt instruments with higher priority of the borrower, or may be unsecured (i.e., not backed by a security interest in any specific collateral), and are subject to the additional risk that the cash flow of the borrower and available assets may be insufficient to meet scheduled payments and repayment of principal after giving effect to any higher ranking obligations of the borrower. Mezzanine Investments are expected to have greater price volatility and exposure to losses upon default than Senior Loans and Second Lien Loans and may be less liquid.
In addition to equity securities risk, credit risk and below investment grade securities risk, with respect to preferred securities of below investment grade quality, there are special risks associated with investing in preferred securities: deferral, subordination, limited voting rights, special redemption rights and risks associated with new types of securities.
The Fund may invest in convertible securities, which consist of bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks and other securities that entitle the holder to acquire common stock or other equity securities of the same or a different issuer. Convertible securities generally offer lower interest or dividend yields than non- convertible securities of similar quality. The market values of convertible securities tend to decline as interest rates increase and, conversely, to increase as interest rates decline. Convertible securities also tend to reflect the market price of the underlying stock in varying degrees, depending on the relationship of such market price to the conversion price in the terms of the convertible security. Convertible securities rank senior to common stock in an issuer’s capital structure and consequently entail less risk than the issuer’s common stock.
Investments in the securities of financially distressed issuers involve substantial risks. These securities may present a substantial risk of default or may be in default at the time of investment. The Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent it is required to seek recovery upon a default in the payment of principal or interest on its portfolio holdings. In any reorganization or liquidation proceeding relating to a portfolio company, the Fund may lose its entire investment or may be required to accept cash or securities with a value less than its original investment. Among the risks inherent in investments in a troubled entity is the fact that it frequently may be difficult to obtain information as to the true financial condition of such issuer. The Adviser’s judgment about the credit quality of the issuer and the relative value and liquidity of its securities may prove to be wrong.
Certain of the companies in which the Fund may invest may have small or medium-sized market capitalizations (“small-cap” and “mid-cap” companies, respectively). Investing in the securities of small-cap or mid-cap companies presents some particular investment risks. These companies may have limited product lines and markets, as well as shorter operating histories, less experienced management and more limited financial resources than larger companies, and may be more vulnerable to adverse general market or economic developments. Stocks of these companies may be less liquid than those of larger companies, and may experience greater price fluctuations than larger companies. In addition, small-cap or mid-cap company securities may not be widely followed by investors, which may result in reduced demand.
Middle market issuers may have limited financial resources and may be unable to meet their obligations under their debt securities that the Fund may hold. Middle market issuers typically have shorter operating histories, narrower product lines, limited distribution channels and smaller market shares than larger businesses, which tend to render them more vulnerable to competitors’ actions and changing market conditions, as well as general economic downturns. There is generally little public information about privately held middle market issuers. Privately held middle market issuers and their financial information generally are not subject to the reporting requirements and other regulations that govern public companies. Middle market issuers are more likely to depend on the management talents and efforts of a small group of persons. Middle market issuers generally have less predictable operating results. Middle market issuers may have difficulty accessing the capital markets to meet future capital needs, which may limit their ability to grow or to repay their outstanding indebtedness upon maturity.
The Fund may invest without limitation in securities of non-U.S. issuers, including issuers in emerging markets. Investing in foreign issuers may involve certain risks not typically associated with investing in securities of U.S. issuers due to increased exposure to foreign economic, political and legal developments, including favorable or unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates, exchange control regulations (including currency blockage), expropriation or nationalization of assets, imposition of withholding taxes on payments, and possible difficulty in obtaining and enforcing judgments against foreign entities. Furthermore, issuers of foreign securities and obligations are subject to different, often less comprehensive, accounting, reporting and disclosure requirements than domestic issuers. The securities and obligations of some foreign companies and foreign markets are less liquid and at times more volatile than comparable U.S. securities, obligations and markets. These risks may be more pronounced to the extent that the Fund invests a significant amount of its assets in companies located in one country or geographic region in which case the Fund may be more exposed to regional economic risks, and to the extent that the Fund invests in securities of issuers in emerging markets.
Investments in securities the issuers of which are located in countries considered to be emerging markets are subject to heightened risks relative to foreign investing generally and are considered speculative. Investing in emerging markets involves certain heightened risks associated with: smaller market capitalization of securities markets, which may suffer periods of relative illiquidity; significant price volatility; restrictions on foreign investment; and potential restrictions on repatriation of investment income and capital.
The Fund’s investment performance may be negatively affected by a devaluation of a currency in which the Fund’s investments are denominated or quoted. Further, the Fund’s investment performance may be significantly affected, either positively or negatively, by currency exchange rates because the U.S. dollar value of securities denominated or quoted in another currency will increase or decrease in response to changes in the value of such currency in relation to the U.S. dollar.
The Fund may invest without limitation in unregistered securities, restricted securities and securities for which there is no readily available trading market or which are otherwise illiquid. The Fund may invest in privately issued securities of both public and private companies, which may be illiquid. The Fund may acquire its investments directly from the issuer in privately negotiated transactions. Substantially all of these securities may be subject to legal and other restrictions on resale or may otherwise be less liquid than publicly traded securities. The Fund may not be able to readily dispose of illiquid securities and obligations at prices that approximate those at which the Fund could sell such securities and obligations if they were more widely traded and, as a result of such illiquidity, the Fund may have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations. The Fund may face other restrictions on its ability to liquidate an investment to the extent that the Adviser or the Fund has material non-public information regarding the issuer. In addition, market, credit and other events may affect the prices of securities with limited liquidity held by the Fund to a greater extent than such events affect more liquid securities, thereby adversely affecting the Fund’s net asset value and ability to make distributions.
The Fund initially expects to employ financial leverage through the issuance of indebtedness and/or the use of reverse repurchase agreements. The Adviser anticipates that the use of financial leverage may result in higher income to Common Shareholders over time; however, there can be no assurance that the Adviser’s expectations will be realized or that a leveraging strategy will be successful in any particular time period. Use of financial leverage creates an opportunity for increased income and capital appreciation but, at the same time, creates special risks. Financial leverage is a speculative technique that exposes the Fund to greater risk and increased costs than if it were not implemented. There can be no assurance that a leveraging strategy will be utilized or will be successful. The use of financial leverage by the Fund will cause the net asset value of the Common Shares to fluctuate significantly in response to changes in interest rates and other economic indicators. As a result, the net asset value and dividend rate of the Common Shares of the Fund is likely to be more volatile than those of a closed-end management investment company that is not exposed to financial leverage. In a declining market, the use of financial leverage may result in a greater decline in the net asset value of the Common Shares than if the Fund were not leveraged. Financial leverage will increase operating costs, which may reduce total return. The Fund will have to pay interest on its indebtedness, if any, which may reduce the Fund’s return. This interest expense may be greater than the Fund’s return on the underlying investment, which would negatively affect the performance of the Fund. Increases in interest rates that the Fund must pay on its indebtedness will increase the cost of financial leverage and may reduce the return to Common Shareholders. This risk may be greater in the current market environment because interest rates are near historically low levels. During the time in which the Fund is utilizing financial leverage, the amount of the fees paid to the Adviser for investment advisory services will be higher than if the Fund did not utilize financial leverage because the fees paid will be calculated based on the Fund’s Managed Assets, including proceeds of financial leverage. This may create a conflict of interest between the Adviser, on the one hand, and the Common Shareholders, on the other hand, as holders of indebtedness, Preferred Shares or other forms of financial leverage do not bear the investment advisory fee. Rather, Common Shareholders bear the portion of the investment advisory fee attributable to the assets purchased with the proceeds of financial leverage, which means that Common Shareholders effectively bear the entire advisory fee. In order to manage this conflict of interest, the Board of Trustees will receive regular reports from the Adviser regarding the Fund’s use of financial leverage and the effect of financial leverage on the management of the Fund’s portfolio and the performance of the Fund.
The Fund is a non-diversified investment company under the 1940 Act. A fund classified as non-diversified under the 1940 Act can invest a greater portion of its assets in obligations of a single issuer than a “diversified” fund. An investment in the Fund may present greater risk to an investor than an investment in a diversified fund because changes in the financial condition or market assessment of a single issuer or small number of issuers may cause greater fluctuations in the value of the Common Shares or have a greater impact on the Fund’s returns.
Inflation risk is the risk that the value of assets or income from investments will be worth less in the future as inflation decreases the value of money. As inflation increases, the real value of the Common Shares and distributions can decline. In addition, during any periods of rising inflation, the dividend rates or borrowing costs associated with the Fund’s use of financial leverage would likely increase, which would tend to further reduce returns to Common Shareholders. Inflation risk may be mitigated to some degree by the Fund’s investments in floating rate investments. Deflation risk is the risk that prices throughout the economy decline over time— the opposite of inflation. Deflation may have an adverse effect on the creditworthiness of issuers and may make issuer default more likely, which may result in a decline in the value of the Fund’s portfolio.
Common equity securities prices fluctuate for a number of reasons, including changes in investors’ perceptions of the financial condition of an issuer, the general condition of the relevant stock market and broader domestic and international political and economic events. They may also decline due to factors which affect a particular industry or industries, such as labor shortages or increased production costs and competitive conditions within an industry. The prices of common equity securities are also sensitive to general movements in the stock market, so a drop in the stock market may depress the prices of common stocks and other equity securities to which the Fund has exposure. Common equity securities in which the Fund may invest are structurally subordinated to preferred stock, bonds and other debt instruments in a company’s capital structure in terms of priority to corporate income and are therefore inherently more risky than preferred stock or debt instruments of such issuers. Dividends on common equity securities which the Fund may hold are not fixed but are declared at the discretion of an issuer’s board of directors.
An investment in MLP units involves some risks that differ from an investment in the common stock of a corporation. As compared to common stockholders of a corporation, holders of MLP units have more limited control and limited rights to vote on matters affecting the partnership. In addition, there are certain tax risks associated with an investment in MLP units and conflicts of interest may exist between common unit holders and the general partner, including those arising from incentive distribution payments. A portion of the benefit the Fund derives from its investment in equity securities of MLPs is a result of MLPs generally being treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Partnerships do not pay U.S. federal income tax at the partnership level. A change in current tax law, or a change in the business of a given MLP, could result in an MLP being treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which would result in such MLP being required to pay U.S. federal income tax on its taxable income. To the extent that the Fund invests in the equity securities of an MLP, the Fund will be a partner in such MLP. Accordingly, the Fund will be required to include in its taxable income the Fund’s allocable share of the income, gains, losses, deductions and credits recognized by each such MLP, regardless of whether the MLP distributes cash to the Fund.
The Fund may invest in privately issued securities of both public and private companies. Privately issued securities have additional risk considerations than investments in comparable public investments. Whenever the Fund invests in companies that do not publicly report financial and other material information, it assumes a greater degree of investment risk and reliance upon the Adviser’s ability to obtain and evaluate applicable information concerning such companies’ creditworthiness and other investment considerations. Certain privately issued securities may be illiquid. If there is no readily available trading market for privately issued securities, the Fund may not be able to readily dispose of such investments at prices that approximate those at which the Fund could sell them if they were more widely traded. Privately issued securities are also more difficult to value. Privately issued debt securities are often of below investment grade quality, frequently are unrated and present many of the same risks as investing in below investment grade public debt securities.
Investments in other investment companies present certain special considerations and risks not present in making direct investments in securities in which the Fund may invest. Investments in other investment companies involve operating expenses and fees that are in addition to the expenses and fees borne by the Fund. Such expenses and fees attributable to the Fund’s investments in other investment companies are borne indirectly by Common Shareholders. Accordingly, investment in such entities involves expense and fee layering. Investments in other investment companies may expose the Fund to an additional layer of financial leverage. To the extent management fees of other investment companies are based on total gross assets, it may create an incentive for such entities’ managers to employ financial leverage, thereby adding additional expense and increasing volatility and risk.
Holders of structured finance securities bear risks of the underlying investments, index or reference obligation and are subject to counterparty risk. The Fund may have the right to receive payments only from the issuer of the structured finance security, and generally does not have direct rights against the issuer or the entity that sold the assets to be securitized. While certain structured finance investments enable the investor to acquire interests in a pool of securities without the brokerage and other expenses associated with directly holding the same securities, investors in structured finance securities generally pay their share of the structured finance security issuer’s administrative and other expenses. The prices of indices and securities underlying structured finance securities, and, therefore, the prices of structured finance securities, will be influenced by, and will rise and fall in response to, the same types of political and economic events that affect issuers of securities and capital markets generally. If the issuer of a structured finance security uses shorter term financing to purchase longer term securities, the issuer may be forced to sell its securities at below market prices if it experiences difficulty in obtaining short-term financing, which may adversely affect the value of the structured finance securities owned by the Fund. Certain structured finance securities may be thinly traded or have a limited trading market. The Fund may invest in structured finance securities collateralized by low grade or defaulted loans or securities. Investments in such structured finance securities are subject to the risks associated with below investment grade securities. Such securities are characterized by high risk. It is likely that an economic recession could severely disrupt the market for such securities and may have an adverse impact on the value of such securities. The Fund may invest in senior and subordinated classes issued by structured finance vehicles. The payment of cash flows from the underlying assets to senior classes take precedence over those of subordinated classes, and therefore subordinated classes are subject to greater risk. Furthermore, the leveraged nature of subordinated classes may magnify the adverse impact on such class of changes in the value of the assets, changes in the distributions on the assets, defaults and recoveries on the assets, capital gains and losses on the assets, prepayment on assets and availability, price and interest rates of assets. Structured finance securities are typically privately offered and sold, and thus are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in structured finance securities may be characterized by the Fund as illiquid securities; however, an active dealer market may exist which would allow such securities to be considered liquid in some circumstances.
The Fund may engage in various derivatives transactions for hedging and risk management purposes, to facilitate portfolio management and to earn income or enhance total return. The use of derivatives transactions to earn income or enhance total return may be particularly speculative. Derivatives transactions involve risks. There may be imperfect correlation between the value of derivative instruments and the underlying assets. Derivatives transactions may be subject to risks associated with the possible default of the other party to the transaction. Derivative instruments may be illiquid. Certain derivatives transactions may have economic characteristics similar to leverage, in that relatively small market movements may result in large changes in the value of an investment. Certain derivatives transactions that involve leverage can result in losses that greatly exceed the amount originally invested. Furthermore, the Fund’s ability to successfully use derivatives transactions depends on the Adviser’s ability to predict pertinent securities prices, interest rates, currency exchange rates and other economic factors, which cannot be assured. Derivatives transactions utilizing instruments denominated in foreign currencies will expose the Fund to foreign currency risk. To the extent the Fund enters into derivatives transactions to hedge exposure to foreign currencies, such transactions may not be successful and may eliminate any chance for the Fund to benefit from favorable fluctuations in relevant foreign currencies. The use of derivatives transactions may result in losses greater than if they had not been used, may require the Fund to sell or purchase portfolio securities at inopportune times or for prices other than current market values, may limit the amount of appreciation the Fund can realize on an investment or may cause the Fund to hold a security that it might otherwise sell. Derivatives transactions involve risks of mispricing or improper valuation. The documentation governing a derivative instrument or transaction may be unfavorable or ambiguous. Derivatives transactions may involve commissions and other costs, which may increase the Fund’s expenses and reduce its return. Various legislative and regulatory initiatives may impact the availability, liquidity and cost of derivative instruments, limit or restrict the ability of the Fund to use certain derivative instruments or transact with certain counterparties as a part of its investment strategy, increase the costs of using derivative instruments or make derivative instruments less effective. In connection with certain derivatives transactions, the Fund may be required to segregate liquid assets or otherwise cover such transactions and/or to deposit amounts as premiums or to be held in margin accounts. Such amounts may not otherwise be available to the Fund for investment purposes. The Fund may earn a lower return on its portfolio than it might otherwise earn if it did not have to segregate assets in respect of, or otherwise cover, its derivatives transactions positions. To the extent the Fund’s assets are segregated or committed as cover, it could limit the Fund’s investment flexibility. Segregating assets and covering positions will not limit or offset losses on related positions.
The Fund may enter into swap transactions, including credit default swaps, total return swaps, index swaps, currency swaps, commodity swaps and interest rate swaps, as well as options thereon, and may purchase or sell interest rate caps, floors and collars. If the Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, interest rates or currency exchange rates, the investment performance of the Fund may be less favorable than it would have been if these investment techniques were not used. Such transactions are subject to market risk, risk of default by the other party to the transaction and risk of imperfect correlation between the value of derivative instruments and the underlying assets and may involve commissions or other costs. Swaps generally do not involve the delivery of securities, other underlying assets or principal. Accordingly, the risk of loss with respect to swaps generally is limited to the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make, or in the case of the other party to a swap defaulting, the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually entitled to receive. Total return swaps may effectively add leverage to the Fund’s portfolio because the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the full notional amount of the swap. Total return swaps are subject to the risk that a counterparty will default on its payment obligations to the Fund thereunder. When the Fund acts as a seller of a credit default swap agreement with respect to a debt security, it is subject to the risk that an adverse credit event may occur with respect to the debt security and the Fund may be required to pay the buyer the full notional value of the debt security under the swap net of any amounts owed to the Fund by the buyer under the swap (such as the buyer’s obligation to deliver the debt security to the Fund). As a result, the Fund bears the entire risk of loss due to a decline in value of a referenced debt security on a credit default swap it has sold if there is a credit event with respect to the security. When the Fund sells a credit default swap, it effectively adds leverage to its portfolio. If the Fund is a buyer of a credit default swap and no credit event occurs, the Fund may recover nothing if the swap is held through its termination date. However, if a credit event occurs, the Fund generally may elect to receive the full notional value of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity whose value may have significantly decreased.
The Fund will be subject to credit risk with respect to the counterparties to the derivative contracts entered into by the Fund. If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a derivative contract, the Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery under the derivative contract in bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. The Fund may obtain only a limited recovery or may obtain no recovery in such circumstances. Concerns about, or a default by, one large market participant could lead to significant liquidity problems for other participants. If a counterparty’s credit becomes significantly impaired, multiple requests for collateral posting in a short period of time could increase the risk that the Fund may not receive adequate collateral.
The Fund may be exposed to certain additional risks should the Adviser uses derivatives transactions as a means to synthetically implement the Fund’s investment strategies. Customized derivative instruments will likely be highly illiquid, and it is possible that the Fund will not be able to terminate such derivative instruments prior to their expiration date or that the penalties associated with such a termination might impact the Fund’s performance in a materially adverse manner. Synthetic investments may be imperfectly correlated to the investment the Adviser is seeking to replicate.
The Fund’s annual portfolio turnover rate may vary greatly from year to year. Portfolio turnover rate is not considered a limiting factor in the execution of investment decisions for the Fund. A higher portfolio turnover rate results in correspondingly greater brokerage commissions and other transactional expenses that are borne by the Fund. High portfolio turnover may result in an increased realization of net short-term capital gains by the Fund which, when distributed to Common Shareholders, will be taxable as ordinary income. Additionally, in a declining market, portfolio turnover may result in realized capital losses.
Securities purchased on a when-issued or delayed delivery basis may expose the Fund to counterparty risk of default as well as the risk that securities may experience fluctuations in value prior to their actual delivery. The Fund generally will not accrue income with respect to a when-issued or delayed delivery security prior to its stated delivery date. Purchasing securities on a when-issued or delayed delivery basis can involve the additional risk that the price or yield available in the market when the delivery takes place may not be as favorable as that obtained in the transaction itself.
The Fund may make short sales of securities. A short sale is a transaction in which the Fund sells a security it does not own. If the price of the security sold short increases between the time of the short sale and the time the Fund replaces the borrowed security, the Fund will incur a loss; conversely, if the price declines, the Fund will realize a capital gain. Any gain will be decreased, and any loss will be increased, by the transaction costs incurred by the Fund, including the costs associated with providing collateral to the broker-dealer (usually cash and liquid securities) and the maintenance of collateral with its custodian. Although the Fund’s gain is limited to the price at which it sold the security short, its potential loss is theoretically unlimited. The Fund may have to pay a premium to borrow the securities and must pay any dividends or interest payable on the securities until they are replaced, which will be expenses of the Fund.
The Adviser and its affiliates provide a wide array of portfolio management and other asset management services to a mix of clients and may engage in ordinary course activities in which their interests or those of their clients may compete or conflict with those of the Fund. The Adviser and its affiliates may provide investment management services to other funds that follow investment objectives similar to that of the Fund. The management of the Fund and of these accounts may raise potential conflicts of interest relating to the cross trading, allocation of investment opportunities and aggregation and allocation of trades. The Adviser and its affiliates have adopted policies and procedures designed to address such and other potential conflicts of interests.
Global financial markets have experienced periods of severe turmoil. Volatile financial markets can expose the Fund to greater market and liquidity risk and potential difficulty in valuing portfolio instruments held by the Fund. Risks to a robust resumption of growth persist. A return to unfavorable economic conditions or sustained economic slowdown could adversely impact the Fund’s portfolio.
At any time after the date of this prospectus, legislation may be enacted that could negatively affect the assets of the Fund or the issuers of such assets. Changing approaches to regulation may have a negative impact on the Fund or entities in which the Fund invests. Legislation or regulation may also change the way in which the Fund itself is regulated. There can be no assurance that future legislation, regulation or deregulation will not have a material adverse effect on the Fund or will not impair the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objectives.
Additional risks relating to investments in the Fund include “Subordinated Securities Risk,” “Floating-Rate and Fixed-to-Floating-Rate Securities Risk,” “Risks Associated with an Investment in IPOs,” “Risks Associated with an Investment in PIPE Transactions,” “Structured Notes Risk,” “U.S. Government Securities Risk,” “Sovereign Debt Risk,” “Eurozone Risk,” “Repurchase Agreements Risk,” “Securities Lending Risk,” “Risk of Failure to Qualify as a RIC,” “Investment Opportunity Risk,” “Confidential Information Risk,” and Anti-Takover Provisions in the Fund's "Governing Documents Risk."
Guggenheim Investments represents the investment management business of Guggenheim Partners, LLC ("Guggenheim"). Guggenheim Funds Distributors, LLC is an affiliate of Guggenheim.
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